Educational ladder of student participation

Model Nr.: 
Developed by: 
SLO, The Netherlands
  • Den Otter, M. (2015). Voicing: geef leerlingen een stem. 9 aanraders. Dordrecht: Instondo.
  • Hart, R. (1992). Children's participation from tokenism to citizenship [Voicing: giving students a voice. 9 advices. Florence: Unicef.
Purpose of the material: 

The purpose of this model is to determine the current level of student participation in educational activities and to create awareness of educators of the desired level of student participation.




Theachers and developers can use the model to determine the level of participation that is given to students and to make choices on the desired level of participation.

How you can use this material in your practice: 

When student participation opportunities are prepared, used or adpated.


This material reflects only the author’s view; the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.